Developments in Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy

Honouring Goeppert-Mayer’s prediction of simultaneous two-photon absorption by an atom or molecule reported in the 1930s in her PhD dissertation thesis, we can state that multiphoton excitation (MPE) microscopy, more frequently identified with two-photon excitation (2PE) fluorescence microscopy, is a key microscopy method in many areas from medicine to biology, from biophysics to materials science.

It is a well-established optical-sectioning method endowed with a robustness to scattering and a comparatively low level of overall photodamage both in terms of phototoxicity and photobleaching. Here we review the main characteristics and make plain some basic aspects of modern applications and variations on the theme.

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