Month: May 2011

Photo Effects of Light

Molecules and atoms can exist in different quantum states. These states are dedicated to different energy levels; the quantum state with the lowest energy is called the ground state. Every state of greater energy is an excited state of the quantum mechanical system. Electrons can be excited by an exogenous energy source and switch to …

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Polarization Contrast

A normal optical microscope needs at least two additional components to perform polarized light microscopy. For detection of birefringence it is necessary to use linearly polarized light for illumination. Therefore, two polarizing filters have to be inserted in the beam path of the microscope. The first polarizing filter produces the polarized light to illuminate the …

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Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures: Apoptotic Challenges and Detection

Organotypic cultures of neuronal tissue were first introduced by Hogue in 1947 and have constituted a major breakthrough in the field of neuroscience. Since then, the technique was developed further and currently there are many different ways to prepare organotypic cultures. The method presented here was adapted from the one described by Stoppini et al. …

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